Giovani Faustine, Program in Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Ani Retno-Prijanti, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia


The continuous growing number of diabetic patients has caused a stable increase in the global prevalence of diabetes mellitus. One of the most common complications caused by diabetes is diabetic macular edema (DME). Over the years, although there have been many options to treat diabetic macular edema, such as macular laser photocoagulation, intravitreal steroids, intravitreal NSAID, vitrectomy, and another novel pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. Recently researchers have made anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) the first-line therapy for DME. Ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept, and pegaptanib have all shown improvements in mean central retinal thickness in patients with DME. A comparison between 4 anti-VEGF drugs’ mechanisms and efficacy is discussed in this article.



Keywords: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Central retinal thickness. Diabetic macular edema. Visual acuity.